Tropical disease: A selection of papers

eLife has published papers on many tropical diseases, including malaria, Ebola, leishmaniases, Dengue and African sleeping sickness. The articles below have been selected by eLife editors to give a flavour.
Collection
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Collection

    1. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Genomic epidemiology of artemisinin resistant malaria

    MalariaGEN Plasmodium falciparum Community Project
    Plasmodium falciparum kelch13 mutations that cause artemisinin resistant malaria in Southeast Asia show markedly different patterns of evolutionary selection in Africa.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Coverage and system efficiencies of insecticide-treated nets in Africa from 2000 to 2017

    Samir Bhatt et al.
    Insecticide-treated net requirements for Africa have been underestimated, but mitigating for inefficiencies in net distributions can produce a cost effective path to universal coverage.
    1. Ecology
    2. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Mapping residual transmission for malaria elimination

    Robert C Reiner et al.
    A fine-grain map of residual transmission and importation in Swaziland shows where to target malaria elimination efforts.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Longitudinal analysis of Plasmodium sporozoite motility in the dermis reveals component of blood vessel recognition

    Christine S Hopp et al.
    Malaria parasites enter the host via the skin, where they are inoculated by an infected mosquito as it probes for blood: the inoculation site is a bottleneck for the parasite and the only time when the parasite is extracellular for more than a few minutes, thus possibly presenting the best opportunity for antibody-mediated inhibition of infection.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Insights into the basic metabolic architecture and adaptations of malaria parasites for growth within human erythrocytes exemplify how incisive knowledge of biochemical pathways and mechanisms may be leveraged to develop new therapies.

    Paul A Sigala et al.
    Insights into the basic metabolic architecture and adaptations of malaria parasites for growth within human erythrocytes exemplify how incisive knowledge of biochemical pathways and mechanisms may be leveraged to develop new therapies.
    1. Immunology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Malaria-associated atypical memory B cells exhibit markedly reduced B cell receptor signaling and effector function

    Silvia Portugal et al.
    Atypical memory B cells (MBCs) appear to differentiate from classical MBCs during chronic exposure to the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, and may interfere with the acquisition of immunity to the disease.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Large-scale whole genome sequencing of M. tuberculosis provides insights into transmission in a high prevalence area

    JA Guerra-Assunção et al
    A study of tuberculosis cases in the Karonga district of Malawi reveals that the main lineages of M. tuberculosis differ in their transmission patterns and virulence.
    1. Immunology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Blood-stage immunity to Plasmodium chabaudi malaria following chemoprophylaxis and sporozoite immunization

    Wiebke Nahrendorf et al.
    A novel mouse model of immunization against Plasmodium chabaudi involving infectious mosquito bites and drug-treatment elicits protection against blood-stage malaria parasites, and shows that protection is not necessarily life cycle stage-specific.
    1. Ecology
    2. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Effectiveness of traveller screening for emerging pathogens is shaped by epidemiology and natural history of infection

    Katelyn M Gostic et al.
    Pathogen natural history, epidemiological knowledge, human behavior and epidemic progression determine whether symptom screening and questionnaires are effective barriers to geographic spread of infection by travelers.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Vitamin A supplements, routine immunization, and the subsequent risk of Plasmodium infection among children under 5 years in sub-Saharan Africa

    Maria-Graciela Hollm-Delgado et al.
    An analysis of national survey data shows that vitamin A might protect against malaria infection, an effect potentially modified by seasonality, and that no routine vaccinations were linked to parasitemia, though BCG vaccination was associated with PfHRP-2 antigenemia.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Modelling the contribution of the hypnozoite reservoir to Plasmodium vivax transmission

    Michael T White et al.
    Mathematical models of the build-up and depletion of the hypnozoite reservoir in the liver can inform the design of treatment strategies for preventing Plasmodium vivax relapse infections.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Crystal structure of PfRh5, an essential P. falciparum ligand for invasion of human erythrocytes

    Lin Chen et al.
    The crystal structure of a PfRh family protein from a malaria parasite has been solved and shows that PfRh5-which the parasite uses to invade human red blood cells-has a novel protein fold.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Mapping the zoonotic niche of Ebola virus disease in Africa

    David M Pigott et al.
    Understanding where future Ebola virus outbreaks may start and the changing nature of the populations living in these places is of critical importance in helping to prepare for future outbreaks.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Global distribution maps of the leishmaniases

    David M Pigott et al.
    Maps defining environmental risk of the leishmaniases provide insights into the ecology of these diseases and identify regions to target public health measures and inform future burden estimates.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A elaborate distinct systemic metabolite signatures during enteric fever

    Elin Näsström et al
    Metabolite analysis of plasma from enteric fever patients define signals of organism specific host–pathogen interactions and provides opportunities for new diagnostics.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A micro-epidemiological analysis of febrile malaria in Coastal Kenya showing hotspots within hotspots

    Philip Bejon et al.
    Malaria 'hotspots' can be identified that range in size from a few homesteads to a village, and it will be necessary to eliminate hotspots at varying scales as we progress towards eliminating malaria.
    1. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Integrating influenza antigenic dynamics with molecular evolution

    Trevor Bedford et al.
    Combined antigenic and genetic analysis shows that different strains of the human influenza virus display dramatically different rates of antigenic drift, and that these differences have a significant impact on the number of new infections in each flu season.
    1. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    The antigenic switching network of Plasmodium falciparum and its implications for the immuno-epidemiology of malaria

    Robert Noble et al.
    The first comprehensive analysis of antigenic switching in the malaria-causing parasite Plasmodium falciparum provides new insights into the process that prevents individuals from acquiring immunity to the disease.

Multimedia

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    Taking a close look at TB

    Judith Glynn et al.

Contributors

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    Ben Cooper
    Mahidol Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit (Thailand)
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    Eduardo Franco
    McGill University (Canada)
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    Simon I Hay
    University of Washington (United States)
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    Mark Jit
    London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, and Public Health England (United Kingdom)
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    Quarraisha Abdool Karim
    CAPRISA (South Africa)
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    Urszula Krzych
    Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (United States)
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    Catherine Kyobutungi
    Africa Population Health Research Center (Kenya)
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    Dominique Soldati-Favre
    University of Geneva (Switzerland)